The Ulcer Prize - Special English Audiobook

     The Ulcer Prize

The Ulcer Prize

  Hello. I’m Marina Santee.
   Hello. I’m Marina Santee.
  And I'm Elizabeth Lickiss.
   And I'm Elizabeth Lickiss.
  Welcome to Spotlight.
   Welcome to Spotlight.
  This programme uses a special English method of broadcasting.
   This programme uses a special English method of broadcasting.
  It is easier for people to understand,
   It is easier for people to understand,
  no matter where in the world they live.
   no matter where in the world they live.
  What would you do to prove your point?
   What would you do to prove your point?
  Just imagine that you are a scientist.
   Just imagine that you are a scientist.
  You research a disease.
   You research a disease.
  You believe that you have discovered a bacterium
   You believe that you have discovered a bacterium
  that causes people to develop a painful condition.
   that causes people to develop a painful condition.
  But other experts do not believe you.
   But other experts do not believe you.
  And you need their support.
   And you need their support.
  So what do you do?
   So what do you do?
  You have presented these experts with your research findings.
   You have presented these experts with your research findings.
  But they want more evidence.
   But they want more evidence.
  You need to do something special.
   You need to do something special.
  So you ask yourself a big question.
   So you ask yourself a big question.
  Are you prepared to infect yourself
   Are you prepared to infect yourself
  with the bacteria to demonstrate your theory?
   with the bacteria to demonstrate your theory?
  This sounds like something that would happen in a film.
   This sounds like something that would happen in a film.
  Not in real life.
   Not in real life.
  But for one Australian scientist
   But for one Australian scientist
  it was something he felt he had to do.
   it was something he felt he had to do.
  Robin Warren and Barry Marshall have been awarded the Nobel Prize
   Robin Warren and Barry Marshall have been awarded the Nobel Prize
  for their scientific discovery.
   for their scientific discovery.
  But for Barry Marshall the cost has been high.
   But for Barry Marshall the cost has been high.
  Barry Marshall and Robin Warren live in Australia.
   Barry Marshall and Robin Warren live in Australia.
  They were both interested in helping people suffering from stomach ulcers.
   They were both interested in helping people suffering from stomach ulcers.
  A stomach ulcer is a sore
   A stomach ulcer is a sore
  or damaged area on the inside of the stomach
   or damaged area on the inside of the stomach
  or duodenum - the beginning of the small intestine.
   or duodenum - the beginning of the small intestine.
  A person with a stomach ulcer
   A person with a stomach ulcer
  can be in a great deal of pain.
   can be in a great deal of pain.
  He may feel sick.
   He may feel sick.
  He cannot eat well and he becomes weak.
   He cannot eat well and he becomes weak.
  Stomach ulcers are a common problem.
   Stomach ulcers are a common problem.
  In the United States nearly one in ten adults
   In the United States nearly one in ten adults
  suffers with stomach ulcers.
   suffers with stomach ulcers.
  Experts believed they knew why people got ulcers.
   Experts believed they knew why people got ulcers.
  The cause was stress or worry.
   The cause was stress or worry.
  Doctors describe stress as a modern-day health problem.
   Doctors describe stress as a modern-day health problem.
  People with stress feel that life is too difficult to manage.
   People with stress feel that life is too difficult to manage.
  Their minds are restless.
   Their minds are restless.
  Adam is one man who knows all about stress.
   Adam is one man who knows all about stress.
  He writes on a website called ‘The ABC Tales’.
   He writes on a website called ‘The ABC Tales’.
  He describes his problem clearly in a poem.
   He describes his problem clearly in a poem.
  ‘Stress waits in the darkness of your mind -
   ‘Stress waits in the darkness of your mind -
  Behind the load of unfinished work.
   Behind the load of unfinished work.
  Stress fills your dreams with images:
   Stress fills your dreams with images:
  Correcting papers and Signing papers.
   Correcting papers and Signing papers.
  You get no sleep at all.
   You get no sleep at all.
  Sleepless nights wreck the way you think and the way you work
   Sleepless nights wreck the way you think and the way you work
  And the alarm clock makes you rise for more.
   And the alarm clock makes you rise for more.
  People leave work,
   People leave work,
  They walk out in the rain -
   They walk out in the rain -
  Minds swimming,
   Minds swimming,
  With heads in hands,
   With heads in hands,
  Trying to forget about work’.
   Trying to forget about work’.
  The World Health Organisation describes stress as a 'worldwide epidemic’,
   The World Health Organisation describes stress as a 'worldwide epidemic’,
  it affects many people.
   it affects many people.
  Too much stress is certainly not good for your health.
   Too much stress is certainly not good for your health.
  But does it cause stomach ulcers?
   But does it cause stomach ulcers?
  Robin Warren was not sure at first.
   Robin Warren was not sure at first.
  So he decided to find out if there was a physical reason
   So he decided to find out if there was a physical reason
  for getting stomach ulcers.
   for getting stomach ulcers.
  He met many ulcer victims.
   He met many ulcer victims.
  He operated on them.
   He operated on them.
  He removed the damaged part of their stomachs.
   He removed the damaged part of their stomachs.
  Then he looked carefully at them under a microscope.
   Then he looked carefully at them under a microscope.
  He observed that the same small bacteria
   He observed that the same small bacteria
  were present in the stomachs of ulcer victims.
   were present in the stomachs of ulcer victims.
  He published his findings.
   He published his findings.
  Doctor Barry Marshall read about Robin Warren’s work.
   Doctor Barry Marshall read about Robin Warren’s work.
  He too became interested.
   He too became interested.
  He wanted to join Robin in his research.
   He wanted to join Robin in his research.
  So Barry Marshall and Robin Warren worked together to study the bacteria.
   So Barry Marshall and Robin Warren worked together to study the bacteria.
  They called the bacteria 'Helicobacter pylori'
   They called the bacteria 'Helicobacter pylori'
  or 'H pylori' for short.
   or 'H pylori' for short.
  They estimated that the H pylori bacterium
   They estimated that the H pylori bacterium
  is found in the stomachs of about fifty [50] percent of the world’s population.
   is found in the stomachs of about fifty [50] percent of the world’s population.
  It does not cause a problem to most people.
   It does not cause a problem to most people.
  But Robin and Barry believed that in around fifteen [15] percent of cases
   But Robin and Barry believed that in around fifteen [15] percent of cases
  the bacterium caused ulcers.
   the bacterium caused ulcers.
  Robin and Barry claimed that
   Robin and Barry claimed that
  these people could be cured.
   these people could be cured.
  But curing these patients would mean that doctors would have to change the way
   But curing these patients would mean that doctors would have to change the way
  they treated stomach ulcers.
   they treated stomach ulcers.
  Doctors normally told patients to reduce their amount of stress.
   Doctors normally told patients to reduce their amount of stress.
  Then they treated the effects of the ulcer with antacids.
   Then they treated the effects of the ulcer with antacids.
  This treatment reduces the pain of stomach ulcers.
   This treatment reduces the pain of stomach ulcers.
  But antacids do not kill the bacteria.
   But antacids do not kill the bacteria.
  They cannot cure the condition.
   They cannot cure the condition.
  Barry and Robin wanted doctors to treat the stomach ulcers
   Barry and Robin wanted doctors to treat the stomach ulcers
  using strong antibiotics.
   using strong antibiotics.
  They claimed that these drugs would kill the bacteria.
   They claimed that these drugs would kill the bacteria.
  The patients would then start to recover.
   The patients would then start to recover.
  It would be possible to cure patients completely.
   It would be possible to cure patients completely.
  However the doctors and scientific experts
   However the doctors and scientific experts
  did not believe Robin and Barry.
   did not believe Robin and Barry.
  They continued to believe that stress caused ulcers - not bacteria.
   They continued to believe that stress caused ulcers - not bacteria.
  So what could Barry and Robin do?
   So what could Barry and Robin do?
  They had published their results.
   They had published their results.
  They had shown their evidence to the world’s experts.
   They had shown their evidence to the world’s experts.
  But still no one believed them.
   But still no one believed them.
  So Barry had a dangerous idea.
   So Barry had a dangerous idea.
  He decided to infect himself with the bacteria.
   He decided to infect himself with the bacteria.
  Barry knew he would become sick.
   Barry knew he would become sick.
  But then people would know
   But then people would know
  that the bacteria caused stomach ulcers.
   that the bacteria caused stomach ulcers.
  He hoped
   He hoped
  that his action would persuade the other experts
   that his action would persuade the other experts
  that he was right.
   that he was right.
  He hoped that they would then support his work.
   He hoped that they would then support his work.
  Barry said:
   Barry said:
  ‘I thought about it for a few weeks,
   ‘I thought about it for a few weeks,
  and then decided to just do it.’
   and then decided to just do it.’
  So Barry drank a liquid containing the H pylori bacterium.
   So Barry drank a liquid containing the H pylori bacterium.
  He suffered from stomach pain and sickness.
   He suffered from stomach pain and sickness.
  He went to his local hospital.
   He went to his local hospital.
  The doctors there performed some tests
   The doctors there performed some tests
  including an endoscopy.
   including an endoscopy.
  The endoscopy test permitted the doctors to see the inside
   The endoscopy test permitted the doctors to see the inside
  of Barry’s stomach.
   of Barry’s stomach.
  The doctors could see the damaged areas.
   The doctors could see the damaged areas.
  They observed the action of the H pylori bacteria.
   They observed the action of the H pylori bacteria.
  Barry was developing a stomach ulcer fast.
   Barry was developing a stomach ulcer fast.
  Barry’s wife urged him to think of his children
   Barry’s wife urged him to think of his children
  and get treatment,
   and get treatment,
  which he did.
   which he did.
  Luckily for Barry his antibiotic medicine worked.
   Luckily for Barry his antibiotic medicine worked.
  Barry’s experiment shocked the scientific world.
   Barry’s experiment shocked the scientific world.
  Experts now started to accept
   Experts now started to accept
  that Barry and Robin were correct in their thinking.
   that Barry and Robin were correct in their thinking.
  Today, thanks to their work,
   Today, thanks to their work,
  many patients with stomach ulcers can be cured.
   many patients with stomach ulcers can be cured.
  Barry and Robin were having dinner together
   Barry and Robin were having dinner together
  when they were told about the Nobel Prize.
   when they were told about the Nobel Prize.
  They were very happy to receive this honour.
   They were very happy to receive this honour.
  But they were even more pleased
   But they were even more pleased
  to be able to help people suffering from ulcers.
   to be able to help people suffering from ulcers.
  Barry Marshall says that
   Barry Marshall says that
  he would do it all again.
   he would do it all again.
  He said:
   He said:
  ‘Somebody had to do it;
   ‘Somebody had to do it;
  somebody had to swallow the bacteria
   somebody had to swallow the bacteria
  and develop an ulcer.
   and develop an ulcer.
  It was the only way
   It was the only way
  to persuade the scientific world’.
   to persuade the scientific world’.
  Professor Brian Spratt is an expert scientist –
   Professor Brian Spratt is an expert scientist –
  a microbiologist.
   a microbiologist.
  He works at Imperial College in London.
   He works at Imperial College in London.
  He believes
   He believes
  that we can all learn from Barry and Robin’s example.
   that we can all learn from Barry and Robin’s example.
  He says:
   He says:
  ‘These two men had a difficult job convincing people
   ‘These two men had a difficult job convincing people
  about their research.
   about their research.
  But they continued to speak out.
   But they continued to speak out.
  Now their work has changed the way doctors deal
   Now their work has changed the way doctors deal
  with stomach ulcers.
   with stomach ulcers.
  Many people with stomach ulcers
   Many people with stomach ulcers
  go on to develop stomach cancer.
   go on to develop stomach cancer.
  So the antibiotic treatment now used
   So the antibiotic treatment now used
  could also be helping to prevent cancer
   could also be helping to prevent cancer
  in these patients.
   in these patients.
  The world owes a lot to Barry and Robin’.
   The world owes a lot to Barry and Robin’.
  The writer of today’s programme was Elizabeth Lickiss.
   The writer of today’s programme was Elizabeth Lickiss.
  The voices you heard were from the United Kingdom.
   The voices you heard were from the United Kingdom.
  Computer users can hear our programmes,
   Computer users can hear our programmes,
  read our scripts and see our word list
   read our scripts and see our word list
  at www.radio.english.net.
   at www.radio.english.net.
  This programme is called ‘Ulcer Prize’.
   This programme is called ‘Ulcer Prize’.
  Thank you for joining us in today’s Spotlight programme.
   Thank you for joining us in today’s Spotlight programme.
  Goodbye.
   Goodbye.